Background: There are numerous excellent articles, texts and studies related to gender and advertising. I have included the sources for all of the page references below. I have also noted some references, in red, to indicate a source that I consider to be particularly foundational in the study of gender and advertising. Please send me a reference if you would like it included in this growing bibliography.
Abrams, Ann ▪ 1976 From Simplicity to Sensation: Art in American Advertising., 1904-1929. Journal of Popular Culture 10(3):620-28.
Adams, Carol J. ▪ 1991 The Sexual Politics of Meat. New York: Continuum.
Atwan, Robert. ▪ 1979 Edsels, Luckies & Frigidaires: Advertising the American Way. New York: Dell.
Baker, C. Edwin ▪ 1992 Advertising and a Democratic Process. Pennsylvania Law Review 140(6):2097-143.
Barthel, Diane ▪ 1987 Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Belkaoui, Ahmed and Janice Lovi ▪ 1976 A Comparative Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Advertising. Journal of Marketing Research 13(2):168-72.
Belknap, Penny and Wilbert Leonard II ▪ 1991 A Conceptual Replication of Erving Goffman’s Study of Gender Advertisements. Sex Roles 25(3-4):103-18.
Benokraitis, Nijole and Joe Feagin. ▪ Modern Sexism: Blatant, Subtle, and Covert Discrimination. Second edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Berger, John ▪ 1985 Ways of Seeing. London: BBC.
Bernard, Jessie ▪ 1995 The Good-Provider Role: Its Rise and Fall. In Men’s Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 149-163. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bernstein, Sid ▪ 1992 Are Ads Less Important? Advertising Age, September 11, 1992, p. 25.
Borden, Neil H. ▪ 1942 The Economic Effects of Advertising. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin.
Bordo, Susan ▪ 1993 Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press. ▪ 1997a Braveheart, Babe, and the Contemporary Body. In Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J.. Pp. 27-65. Berkeley: University of California Press. ▪ 1997b Never Just Pictures. In Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J.. Pp. 107-138. Berkeley: University of California Press. ▪ 1997c Can a Woman Harass a Man? In Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J.. Pp. 139-172. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brod, Harry ▪ 1995 Pornography and the Alienation of Male Sexuality. In Men’s Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 393-404. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs ▪ 1997 The Body Project. New York: Random House.
Busby, Linda J. and Greg Leichty ▪ 1993 Feminism and Advertising in Traditional and Nontraditional Women's Magazines 1950s-1980s. Journalism Quarterly 70 (2):247-265.
Chodorow, Nancy ▪ 1974 Family Structure and Feminine Personality. In Women, Culture and Society. Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, eds. Pp. 43-66. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Collins, Patricia Hill ▪ 1990 Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Cortese, Anthony J. ▪ 1999 Provocateur: Images of Women and Minorities in Advertising. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Coughlin, Maureen and P. J. O'Connor ▪ 1984 Gender Role Portrayals in Advertising: An Individual Difference Analysis. Advances in Consumer Research, 12: 238-41.
Courtney, Alice and Sarah Wernick Lockeretz ▪ 1971 A Woman’s Place: An Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research 8(1):92-105.
Courtney, Alice and Thomas Whipple ▪ 1983 Sex Stereotyping in Advertising. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. ▪ 1985 Female Role Portrayals in Advertising and Communication Effectiveness: A Review. Journal of Advertising, 14 (3): 4-8, 17.
Craig, Stephen ▪ 1992 The Effect of Television Day Part on Gender Portrayals in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis. Sex Roles 26(5/6):197-211.
Crain, Rance ▪ 1994 Viewpoint: Power of Advertising More Like a Myth. Advertising Age, January 10, 1994, p. 21.
Crenshaw, Kimberle Williams ▪ 1993 Beyond Racism and Misogyny. In Words that Wound. Boulder: Westview. Pp. 111-132.
Culley, James D. and Rex Bennett ▪ 1976 Selling Women, Selling Blacks. Journal of Communication 26:160-74.
Cumming, Walter ▪ 1996 Love and Liquer: Modernism and Postmodernism in Advertising and Fiction. In Advertising and Culture: Theoretical Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 61-74.
Danna, Sammy R. ▪ 1992 Changing Male Image in Advertising, In Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility, Sammy R. Danna (Ed.), Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Press, Pp. 146-159.
Donnerstein, Edward and Daniel Linz ▪ 1997d Mass Media, Sexual Violence, and Male Viewers: Current Theory and Research. In Reconstructing Gender: A Multicultural Anthology. Estelle Disch, ed. Pp. 498-513. Mountain View: Mayfield.
Dyer, Gillian ▪ 1982 Advertising as Communication. London: Methuen.
Easton, G. and C. Toner ▪ 1983 "Women in industrial advertisements." Industrial Marketing Management 12 (2, April):145-149.
Paula England and Teresa Gardner ▪ 1983. Sex Differentiation in Magazine Advertisements: A Content Analysis Using Log-Linear Modeling. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 6 (1): 253-268.
Evans, Debra ▪ 1993 Beauty and the Best. Colorado Springs, CO: Focus on the Family Publishing.
Ewen, Stuart ▪ 1976 Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill. ▪ 1988 All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture. New York: Basic Books.
Ewing, Wayne ▪ 1995 The Civic Advocacy of Violence. In Men’s Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 301-306. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Faludi, Susan ▪ 1999 Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York: Perennial.
Fennell, Geraldine and Susan Weber ▪ 1983 Avoiding Sex Role Stereotypes in Advertising: What Questions should We Ask? Advances in Consumer Research, 11: 88-93.
Ferguson, Jill Hicks, Peggy J. Kreshel and Spencer F. Tinkham ▪ 1990 "In the pages of Ms.: sex role portrayals of women in advertising." Journal of Advertising 19 (1):40-51.
Flick, M. ▪ 1984 "Invisible or lovely: women in advertisements." Media Information Australia 34:23-34.
Fowells, Jib ▪ 1996 Advertising and Popular Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fox, Bonnie J. ▪ 1990 Selling the Mechanized Household: 70 Years of Ads in Ladies Home Journal. Gender and Society 4(1):25-40.
Fox, Stephen ▪ 1984 The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators. New York: William Morrow.
Friedan, Betty ▪ 1984 The Feminine Mystique. New York: Dell.
Frith, Katherine T. ▪ 1995 Advertising and Mother Nature. In Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Media: Global Diversities. Angharad Valdivia (Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ▪ 1998 Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising. In Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising, Katherine T. Frith, ed. Pp. 1-17. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Furham, Adrian and Nadine Bitar ▪ 1993 The Stereotypical Portrayal of Men and Women in British Television Advertisements. Sex Roles 29(3-4):297-310.
Gibson, James William ▪ 1994 Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post-Vietnam America. New York: Hill and Wang.
Goffman, Erving ▪ 1979 Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper and Row.
Gold, Philip ▪ 1987 Advertising, Politics, and American Culture. New York: Paragon House. Goldman, Robert ▪ 1992 Reading Ads Socially. London: Routledge.
Goodrum, Charles and Helen Darlrymple ▪ 1990 Advertising in America: The First 200 Years. New York: Abrams.
Gossage, Howard Luck ▪ 1967 The Gilded Bough: Magic and Advertising. In The Human Dialogue: Perspectives on Communication. Floyd Matson (Ed.). New York: Free Press, Pp. 362-70.
Green, Martin ▪ 1996 Some Versions of the Pastoral: Myth in Advertising, Advertising as Myth. In Advertising and Culture: Theoretical Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 29-47.
Griff, Mason ▪ 1969 Advertising: The Central Institution of Mass Society. Diogenes 68:120-37.
Griffin, M., K. Viswanath, and D. Schwartz ▪ 1994 "Gender advertising in the U. S. and India: exporting cultural stereotypes." Media, Culture and Society 16 (3):487-507.
Hall, Christine and Matthew Crum ▪ 1994 Women and ‘Bodyisms’ in Television Beer Commercials. Sex Roles 31(5-6):329-37.
Hambleton, Ronald ▪ 1987 The Branding of America: From Levi Strauss to Chrysler. Camden, Maine: Yankee Books.
Hochschild, Arlie ▪ 2003 The Second Shift. New York: Penguin.
Hood, Jane C. ▪ 1995 “Let’s Get a Girl”: Male Bonding Rituals in America. In Men’s Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 303-311. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hovland, Roxanne and Gary Wilcox (Eds.). ▪ 1989 Advertising in Society: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.
Hubbard, Rita C ▪ 1992 Male Parent Images in Advertising, In Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility, Sammy R. Danna (Ed.), Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Press, Pp. 141-45.
Jhally, Sut ▪ 1978 Advertising as Religion: The Dialectic of Technology and Magic. In Cultural Politics in Contemporary America. Ian Angus and Sut Jhally (Eds.). New York: Routledge. Pp. 217-29. ▪ 1987 The Codes of Advertising: Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society, London: Frances Pinter.
Kaufman, Michael ▪ 1995 The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men’s Violence. In Men’s Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 13-25. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kellner, Douglas ▪ 1990 Advertising and Consumer Culture. In Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. John Downing et. al. (Eds.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kervin, D. ▪ 1990 "Advertising masculinity: the representation of males in Esquire advertisements." Journal of Communication Inquiry 14 (1, Winter):51-70.
Kilbourne, Jean ▪ 1999 Can’t Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. New York: Simon and Schuster. If you have to read only one text on gender and advertising, this is it.
Klassen, M., C. Jasper, and A. Schwartz ▪ 1993 "Men and women: images of their relationships in magazine advertisements." Journal of Advertising Research 33 (2):30-39.
Kilbourne, William E. ▪ 1983 An Exploratory Study of Sex Roles in Advertising and Women's Perceptions of Managerial Attributes in Women. Advances in Consumer Research, 11: 84-87.
Kilbourne, W. ▪ 1990 Female Stereotyping in Advertising: An Experiment on Male-Female Perceptions of Leadership. Journalism Quarterly 67 (1):25-31.
Khoo, M. and K. Karan 2007 Macho or Metrosexual: The Branding of Masculinity in FHM Magazine in Singapore. Intercultural Communication Studies 15(1):34-45.
Kolbe, R. and P. Albanese ▪ 1996 Man to Man: A content analysis of sole-male images in male-audience magazines. Journal of Advertising 25(4):1-20.
Kosimar, L. ▪ 1971 Women in Sexist Society. New York: John Wiley.
Lafky, Sue, Duffy, Margaret, Steinmaus, Mary and Berkowitz, Dan. ▪ 1996 "Looking through gendered lenses: female stereotype in advertisements and gender role expectations." Journalism Quarterly 73 (Summer 1996):379-387.
Lanis, Kyra and Katherine Covell ▪ 1995 Images of Women in Advertisements: Effects on Attitudes Related to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles 22(9-10):639-49.
Laski, Marghanita ▪ 1965 Advertising: Sacred and Profane. Twentieth Century 165:118-29.
La Tour, Michael S. ▪ 1990 Female Nudity in Print Advertising: An Analysis of Gender Differences in Arousal and Ad Response. Psychology and Marketing 7(1):65-81.
Lazier-Smith, Linda ▪ 1989 "Advertising: women's place and image -- a new 'generation' of images to women." Pp. 247-260 in P. J. Creedon (ed.), Women in Mass Communication: Challenging Gender Values. Sage Focus Edition, no. 106. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. ▪ 1989 A New Generation of Images of Women. In Women in Mass Communications. P.J. Creedon, ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Lears, T.J. Jackson ▪ 1984 Some Versions of Fantasy: Toward a Cultural History of American Advertising., 1880-1930. In Prospects: The Annual of American Cultural Studies. Jack Salzman (Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 349-405. ▪ 1983 From Salvation to Self-Realization: Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of the Consumer Culture, 1880-1930. In The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History. Richard Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears (Eds.). New York: Pantheon. Pp. 3-38.
Leigh, Thomas W. et. al. ▪ 1987 Role Portrayals of Women in Advertising: Cognitive Responses and Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research 27(5):54-62.
Leiss, William, Stephen Kline and Sut Jhally ▪ 1986 Social Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products and Images of Well-Being. Toronto: Methuen.
Lewis, C. and J. Neville ▪ 1995 "Images of Rosie: a content analysis of women workers in American magazine advertising, 1940-▪ 1946." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (1):216-227.
Lewis, Richard W. ▪ 1996 Abosolut Book: The Absolut Vodka Advertising Story. Boston: Journey Editions.
Leymore, Varda ▪ 1975 Hidden Myths: Structure and Symbolism in Advertising. London: Heinemann.
Lindsey, Linda ▪ 1997 Advertising. In Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. Third edition. Pp. 312-317. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Louis, George ▪ 1977 The Art of Advertising: George Louis on Mass Communication. New York: Abrams.
Lysonski, S. ▪ 1985 "Role portrayals in British magazine advertisements." European Journal of Marketing 19 (7):37-55. ▪ 1983 Female and Male Portrayals in Magazine Advertisements: A Re-examination. Akron Business and Economic Review 14 (2):45-50.
Maccurdy, Marian ▪ 1994 The Four Women of the Apocalypse: Polarized Feminine Images in Magazine Advertisements. In Gender and Utopia in Advertising: A Critical Reader. Luigi Manca and Alessandra Manca (Eds.), Lisle, IL: Procopian Press. Pp. 31-48.
Macklin, M. Carole and Richard H. Kolbe ▪ 1984 Sex Role Stereotyping in Children's Advertising: Current and Past Trends. Journal of Advertising, 13 (2): 34-42.
Manca, Luigi and Alessandra Manca ▪ 1994 Adam through the Looking-Glass: Images of Men in Magazine Advertisements of the 1980s. In Gender and Utopia in Advertising: A Critical Reader. Luigi Manca and Alessandra Manca (Eds.), Lisle, IL: Procopian Press. Pp. 111-131.
Manganaro, Elise Salem ▪ 1996 When Foreign Sells: Exotica in American TV Ads of the Eighties. In Advertising and Culture: Theoretical Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 11-27.
Marchand, Roland ▪ 1985 Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
Masse, Michelle A. and Karen Rosenblum ▪ 1988 Male and Female Created They Them: The Depiction of Gender in the Advertising of Traditional Men's and Women's Magazines. Women's Studies International Forum 11(2):127-44.
Mayes, Ernest M. ▪ 1996 Images of Black Women in Print Advertisements in Relation to Dominant Cultural Standards of Beauty. M.A. thesis, Pennsylvania State University.
McAllister, Matthew P. ▪ 1996 The Commercialization of American Culture: New Advertising, Control and Democracy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McCracken, Ellen ▪ 1982 Demystifying Cosmopolitan: Five Critical Methods. Journal of Popular Culture 16(2):30-42. ▪ 1992 Decoding Women's Magazines: From Mademoiselle to Ms. New York: St. Martin's Press.
McLuhan, Marshall ▪ 1947 American Advertising. Horizon 93-94:132-41.
Mills, Sara ▪ 1995 Feminist Stylistics, Routledge.
Moog, Carol ▪ 1990 Are They Selling Her Lips?: Advertising and Identity. New York: William Morrow.
Morrison, Bruce and Richard C. Sherman ▪ 1972 Who Responds to Sex in Advertising? Journal of Advertising Research 12(2):15-19. Mulvey, Laura ▪ 1975 Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Screen 16:6-18.
Norris, James D. ▪ 1990 Advertising and the Transformation of American Society, 1865-1920. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
O'Barr, William ▪ 1994 Culture and the Ad: Exploring Otherness in the World of Advertising. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ogilvy, David ▪ 1963 Confessions of an Advertising Man. New York: Atheneum. ▪ 1985 On Advertising. New York: Vintage.
Ortner, Sherry ▪ 1974 Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture? In Women, Culture and Society. Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, eds. Pp. 67-87. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Parkin, Katherine J. ▪ 2007 Food Is Love: Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Peterson, Theodore ▪ 1979 Magazine Advertising: Its Growth and Effects. In The Commercial Connection: Advertising and the American Mass Media. John Wright (Ed.). New York: Dell. Pp. 38-57.
Plakoyiannaki, E. et. al. ▪ 2008 Images of Women in Online Advertisements of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist? Journal of Business Ethics, 83(1), 101-112.
Pollay, Richard ▪ 1986 The Distorted Mirror: Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising. Journal of Marketing 50(4):18-36.
Pope, Daniel ▪ 1983 The Making of Modern Advertising. New York: Basic Books.
Posner, Judith ▪ 1984 The Objectified Male: The New Male Image in Advertising. Atkinson Review 1(Spring 1984):17-22.
Rakow, Lana ▪ 1992 "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful": Feminist Resistance to Advertising's Irresistible Meanings. The Southern Journal of Communications 57(2):132-42.
Reichert, Tom and Jacqueline Lambiase ▪ 2002 Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal. New York: Routledge.
Reid, Leonard N. and Lawrence C. Soley ▪ 1983 Decorative Models and the Readership of Magazine Ads. Journal of Advertising Research, 23 (April/May): 27-31. ▪ 1981 "Another look at the 'decorative' female model: the recognition of visual and verbal ad components." Pp. 123-133 in J. H. Leigh and C. R. Martin, Jr. (eds.), Current Issues and Research in Advertising. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Graduate School of Business Administration.
Riffe, Daniel et. al. ▪ 1993 Game Time, Soap Time and Prime Time TV Ads: Treatment of Women in Sunday Football and Rest-of-Week Advertising. Journalism Quarterly 70(2):437-46.
Robinson, B., & Hunter, E. ▪ 2008 Is Mom Still Doing It All? Journal of Family Issues, 29(4), 465-486.
Rowe, Jonathan ▪ 1987 Modern Advertising-The Subtle Persuasion. Christian Science Monitor January 28, 1987, P. 14ff.
Rudman, William and Akiko Hagiwara ▪ 1992 Sexual Exploitation in Advertising Health and Wellness Products. Women and Health 18:77-89.
Rudman, William and Patty Verdi ▪ 1993 Exploitation: Comparing Sexual and Violent Imagery of Females and Males in Advertising. Women and Health 20(4):1-20.
Saunders, C. S. and B. A. Stead ▪ 1986 "Women's adoption of a business uniform: a content analysis of magazine advertisements." Sex Roles 15 (3/4):197-205.
Scanlon, Jennifer, ed. ▪ 2000 The Gender and Consumer Culture Reader. New York: New York University Press.
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Schutzman, Mady ▪ 1999 The Real Thing: Performance, Hysteria, and Advertising. Hanover, NE: University Press of New England.
Sexton, Donald and Phyllis Haberman ▪ 1974 Women in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research 14:41-46.
Sheperd, Juanita M. ▪ 1980 The Portrayal of Black Women in the Ads of Popular Magazines. Western Journal of Black Studies 4:179-82.
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Simon, Richard ▪ 1980 Advertising as Literature: The Utopian Fiction of the American Marketplace. Texas Studies in Language and Literature 22(2):154-74.
Sinclair, John ▪ 1987 Images Incorporated: Advertising as Industry and Ideology. Kent, England: Croom Helm.
Soley, L. C. and L. N. Reid ▪ 1988 "Taking it off: Are models in magazine advertisements wearing less?" Journalism Quarterly 65 (4, Winter):960-966.
Soley, Lawrence C. and Leonard N. Reid ▪ 1983 Effects of Decorative Female Models on Ad Recognition Over Time. Proceedings of the 1983 Convention of the American Academy of Advertising, (ed.), Donald W. Jugenheimer: 116- 119.
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Stern, Barbara and Morris B. Holbrook ▪ 1994 Gender and Genre in the Interpretation of Advertising Text. In Gender Issues and Consumer Behavior. Janeen Arnold Costa (Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Pp. 11-41.
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